Old habits die hard – especially if one is not even aware of them. Research has shown again and again that the Roma remain the most discriminated minority in Europe. A historian does not find this surprising. The exclusion of the diverse Roma and Traveller groups has a centuries-old history, connected to the deep structures of the European societies. From late medieval times onwards, the Romani people have been marginalised and persecuted, whether in the context of vagrancy laws, nationalism, racial doctrines, border control, or of European integration.