The New Mobility: Managing Growth, Security, and Social Justice

Since the 2008 recession which touched most countries in the world, governments and citizens alike have been concerned about maintaining sufficient levels of economic growth to support their standard of living. The jobs and government revenues lost during the recession and the debt crises that followed and that remain to this day have served to remind us that standards of living are fragile. The crisis in the Eurozone and the shaky recoveries in many countries of both the developed and developing world are exacerbated by their ageing societies and shrinking work forces, which point ultimately to their need for international migrants. The need for migrants to sustain standards of living in many countries will bring with it significant policy challenges with regard to security, social well-being, and social justice. The 2013 International Metropolis Conference, which will take place in Tampere, Finland, will contextualize international migration within a framework that looks at simultaneously managing economic and population growth, security, and social justice.

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  • Plenary 1 International competition for talent +

    This session will examine the massive population shifts that will occur over the next 30-40 years with effects on relative geopolitical influence, relative GDP, and migration. It will examine not only population aging but the impact on the world’s economy and political system of a shift in the population away from the OECD countries to the developing world. It will highlight the anticipated effects on migration, both with regard to supply and demand for labour of all skills levels and the availability of employment. Among these effects is said to be a growing international competition for talent. Is the competition real or imagined? Will we see a competition far into the future and, if so, amongst which countries and for which migrants? Panellists will look at the factors that will determine differential competitiveness including income potential, the social environment, naturalization and visa policies, the education system, and the role of the business, including the transnational business, sector.

    Howard Duncan, Executive Head, Metropolis, Canada (Chair) (Presentation 10.9.2013)
    Jean-Christophe Dumont, OECD, France (Presentation 10.9.2013)
    Huiyao Wang, Center for China and Globalization, China (Presentation 10.9.2013)
    Kai Öistämö, Nokia, Finland (Presentation 10.9.2013)

  • Plenary 2 The role of transnational migrants in diplomacy +

    With the recent emphasis on immigration policy as an instrument of national economic development, we can forget other effects of the presence of large numbers of immigrants in a society, especially when they constitute a significant proportion of a population. One such area is politics, more specifically foreign policy. It is clear that the very presence of immigrants in one particular country immediately impacts the relationship of sending and receiving country. The relations between Germany and Turkey, or France and Morocco, or the U.S.A. and Mexico are obvious cases in point. It is also clear that immigrants are not just subjects of politics, or political non-persons, as more and more become politically active and take part in political mobilizations of sorts. As state diplomats or as civil society diplomats they play formal and less formal roles in steering societal developments in both sending and receiving countries. In this session we will look at the relations between countries whose foreign and domestic policies are strongly affected by the presence and actions of migrant populations. Speakers will also look at the role of migrants in fostering political linkages across borders as well as trade and other business relationships.

    Marco Lombardi, the Catholic University in Milan, Italy (Chair) (Presentation 10.9.2013)
    Jeannette Money,  the University of California Davis, USA (Presentation 10.9.2013)
    Yossi Shain, Tel Aviv University, Georgetown University, Israel (Presentation 10.9.2013)


  • Plenary 3 Growth, security, and social justice in restructuring welfare states +

    Many immigrant receiving societies, especially those in northwest Europe, are advanced welfare states. They have developed intricate public and semi-public systems to re-distribute wealth and social resources and thereby to prevent extreme poverty, provide social security to those in need, and create equality of opportunity for all citizens. In many of these welfare states, non-citizen immigrants enjoy the same rights as do citizens. However, for a number of years and especially since the recent economic crisis, this system has been under enormous pressure, to the point that many commentators now regard the advanced welfare state as a thing of the past, no longer affordable in economies that must now compete globally. Generous welfare arrangements are costly, and as a result may protect insiders over outsiders and breed resentment among large parts of the population towards the recipients, particularly non-citizen outsiders. Curtailing the welfare state may gain the confidence of global markets, but it may also create barriers to equality of opportunity and social justice for all. This session will examine the effects of welfare state re-structuring on immigrants and immigration with special attention being given to the Nordic countries.

    Kent Andersson, City od Malmö, Sweden (Chair) (Presentation 11.9.2013)
    Ewald Engelen, University of Amsterdam, Netherland (Presentation 11.9.2013)
    Olli Kangas, Social Insurance Institution of Finland, Finland (Presentation 11.9.2013)
    Michael Samers, the University of Kentucky, USA (Presentation 11.9.2013)

  • Plenary 4 Managing migration for security, trade, and the movement of people. +

    A significant aspect of protecting the national security of a country is controlling who is allowed to enter and remain on its territory. Caution with respect to allowing access to one’s territory can work against the economic benefits of allowing goods, services, and people to cross one’s border to generate or enhance the economic or other aspects of a society. At a time when global trade is virtually essential to the economic prosperity of any country, economic self-sufficiency no longer being a realistic option, giving priority to national security interests can come at a high economic cost. This session will be a discussion of how to manage migration to enhance security without hindering trade and the flow of people. Is this a zero-sum game, or can this dichotomy be managed to net positive results? Although the emphasis will be on managing migration into one’s country, it will also refer to managing out-migration flows from these same perspectives of enhancing security, trade, and the movement of people.

    Pirkko Pitkänen, University of Tampere, Finland (Chair) (Presentation 11.9.2013)
    Maruja M.B. Asis, The Scalabrini Migration Center, Philippines (Presentation 11.9.2013)

    Christopher Sands, Hudson Institute, Washington, D.C., USA (Presentation 11.9.2013)
    Jon Simmons, Migration and Border Analysis, Home Office Science, UK (Presentation 11.9.2013)
    Catrina Tapley, CIC, Canada (Presentation 11.9.2013)

  • Plenary 5 Irregular migration and human smuggling: what are the solutions? +

    Many expect irregular migration flows and human smuggling to grow, partly as a result of sustained economic disparities but also as a result of the high population of young people entering the labour market in economies that offer few employment prospects. Irregular migration and human smuggling has become a thriving multi-billion dollar industry. This session will look at the economics of irregular migration and human smuggling, offer an analysis of the potential benefits of the standard solutions, and search for effective innovations, including in revisions to international law and co-operation between sending, transit, and destination countries. Speakers will discuss the effectiveness of such solutions as detention, the imposition of visa requirements, and strengthened enforcement and interception, including interception in international waters. We will look at these stock solutions by assessing actual cases, including boat arrivals in Australia and Canada and cases arising from the recent uprisings in Tunisia, Egypt, and Libya. Finally, we will look at the changing strategies that are being used by those who want entry to countries that formally deny them access. We will ask the sobering question, ‘Can any humane intervention succeed?’

    Eva Biaudet, Ombudsman for Minorities, Finland (Chair)
    Franck Düvell, University of Oxford, UK  (Presentation 12.9.2013)
    Frank Laczko, IOM, Switzerland (Presentation 12.9.2013)
    Lin Sheng, University of Fuzhou, China  (Presentation 12.9.2013)

  • Plenary 6 Social justice for ethnic minorities +

    Liberal democracies are characterized by anti-discrimination and other human rights instruments in their legislation, some in their constitutions. The history of such societies is a demonstration of the difficulty in having normative legislation and the societal expectations that they represent actually realized in daily life. Around the world, there is no shortage of liberal democracies within which minority populations experience discrimination and unequal access to the opportunities that the society offers to the mainstream. A particularly challenging case is that of the Roma of Europe who have a history of being victims of discrimination within societies that espouse equal rights for all and have legislated protections against discrimination for their minorities. What makes the case of the Roma particularly challenging is that their mistreatment occurs not only within state settings that have not effectively offered them protection but also within the apparatus of the European Union which assigns priority to protection against human rights abuses. Despite these legal frameworks, Roma from Europe have become among the most numerous asylum seekers to North America and other havens to the point that this has become a delicate matter of international relations. This panel will examine how the European homeland states, the European Union, and the countries of asylum can develop solutions to what has become an intractable problem of social justice.

    Jan Rath, the University of Amsterdam, Netherlands (Chair) (Presentation 12.9.2013)
    Volkan Aytar, Bahçeşehir University, Turkey (Presentation 12.9.2013)
    Gábor Takács, Municipality of Miskolc, Hungary (Presentation 12.9.2013)
    Ivan Ivanov, European Roma Information Office (ERIO) (Presentation 12.9.2013)

  • Plenary 7 Religion, integration, and social cohesion +

    Discussions in the West of the integration of religious minorities have been cast within a framework of state secularism that expects religion to remain a private matter of individual belief and conscience. However, this framework’s long-term viability is being called into question as we witness a resurgence of religious belief and practice throughout the world, including in many countries in the West and among many immigrants to states that have considered themselves secular. Therefore, the integration of immigrants with strong religious affiliations has become more complex, not simply because some countries are seeing a growing diversity of religious belief but because of pressures on governments to weaken the grip of secularism with respect to public affairs. Further complicating the contemporary integration situation is the transnational reach of some religious communities which some believe has the potential to weaken the internal cohesion of immigrant-receiving societies. This panel will bring an empirical sobriety to what has the potential to become an emotionally-driven debate.

    Tuomas Martikainen, Institute of Migration, Finland (Chair) (Presentation 13.9.2013)
    Valérie Amiraux, University of Montreal, Canada (Presentation 13.9.2013)
    Rajeev Bhargava, Centre for the Study of Developing Societies, India (Presentation 13.9.2013)
    Christine Inglis, University of Sydney, Australia (Presentation 13.9.2013)

  • Plenary 8 Immigration and Russia: a little told story +

    It is rarely noted that the world’s second largest destination for migrants is Russia. In terms of absolute numbers, only the United States has a larger migrant stock. Migration to Russia over the past twenty years tells a fascinating story of geopolitics, economic development, population ageing, and social cohesion. With the collapse of the Soviet Union came large flows of those seeking better prospects from many CIS states, flows that in many cases have continued or even increased. But the story is not only of supply-driven migration. Russia has long-recognized its need for migrants to maintain a population that has been declining from a combination of low fertility, ageing, and high mortality; to further develop its economy in the face of labour shortages; to modernize its economy by bringing in those with high skills levels; and to manage this in such a way that social cohesion is maintained, a way that has put a premium on immigration by ethnic Russians. The migration flows have not all been one-way, however, with large numbers of Russians now living in the United States, Germany, Israel, and smaller numbers going elsewhere including to neighbouring Finland. This panel will illustrate the challenges of managing migration in such complex circumstances with an eye to conclusions of widespread application.

    Ismo Söderling, Insitute of Migration, Finland (Chair)
    Linda Cook, Brown University, USA (Presentation 13.9.2013)
    Olga Davydova, University of Eastern Finland, Finland (Presentation 13.9.2013)
    Sergei Riazantsev, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia
    Olga Tkach, Centre for Independent Social Research, Russia

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Wagtail – migratory bird

The wagtail is the provincial bird of the Tampere Region

Wagtails are small birds with long tails which they wag frequently. Wagtails are slender, often colourful, ground-feeding insectivores of open country in the Old World. They are ground nesters, laying up to six speckled eggs at a time. Among their most conspicuous behaviours is a near constant tail wagging, a trait that has given the birds their common name.

(source: Wikipedia)